Overcoming Barriers: The Endothelium as a Linchpin of Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pathogenesis?
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic involving >5,500,000 cases worldwide as of May 26, 2020. The culprit is the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2, which invades cells by binding to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2. While the majority of patients mount an appropriate antiviral response and recover at home, others progress to respiratory distress requiring hospital admission for supplemental oxygen. In severe cases, deterioration to acute respiratory distress syndrome necessitating mechanical ventilation, development of severe thrombotic events, or cardiac injury and dysfunction occurs. In this review, we highlight what is known to date about coronavirus disease 2019 and cardiovascular risk, focusing in on the putative role of the endothelium in disease susceptibility and pathogenesis.
Approach and Results:
Cytokine-driven vascular leak in the lung alveolar-endothelial interface facilitates acute lung injury in the setting of viral infection. Given that the virus affects multiple organs, including the heart, it likely gains access into systemic circulation by infecting or passing from the respiratory epithelium to the endothelium for viral dissemination. Indeed, cardiovascular complications of coronavirus disease 2019 are highly prevalent and include acute cardiac injury, myocarditis, and a hypercoagulable state, all of which may be influenced by altered endothelial function. Notably, the disease course is worse in individuals with preexisting comorbidities that involve endothelial dysfunction and may be linked to elevated ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2) expression, such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease.
Rapidly emerging data on coronavirus disease 2019, together with results from studies on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-1, are providing insight into how endothelial dysfunction may contribute to the pandemic that is paralyzing the globe. This may, in turn, inform the design of biomarkers predictive of disease course, as well as therapeutics targeting pathogenic endothelial responses.
Full text of this article is available at https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1161/ATVBAHA.120.314558